On the Characteristics of the Cognitive Dissonance State: Exploration Within the Pleasure Arousal Dominance Model PMC

如何找到大量的精准客户?如何让你的流量持续赚钱? 加微信:18662652862领取《炎枭流量赚钱心法》

The study of The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference reported the belief contradiction that occurred in the Chabad Orthodox Jewish congregation, who believed that their Rebbe was the Messiah. This is often very difficult, as people frequently employ a variety of mental maneuvers. Participants in the ‘severe embarrassment’ condition gave the most positive rating. In the ‘severe embarrassment’ condition, they had to read aloud obscene words and a very explicit sexual passage. While fringe members were more inclined to recognize that they had made fools of themselves and to “put it down to experience,” committed members were more likely to re-interpret the evidence to show that they were right all along .

  • Theoretically, dissonance may contribute to a variety of changes in behavior or beliefs.
  • It is not always a persuasive message, attention, or motivation of an individual that can change our attitudes and behavior.
  • Cognitive dissonance is the reason people react to new cognitions in a certain way, and change their behaviors or attitudes.
  • In the case of the spilled coffee, returning to that state of mental harmony isn’t too difficult.
  • Cognitive dissonance is typically experienced as psychological stress when persons participate in an action that goes against one or more of those things.

However, all the variations we have seen could actually be interpreted as evidence for a general and unspecified negative affect. In 1964, Festinger moved from social psychology to research on visual perception. Although a seemingly radical departure, it was in fact a continuation of a theme. Festinger’s work on visual perception concerned how people reconcile inconsistencies between visual perception and eye movements to see coherent images. His social psychological research concerned how people resolve conflict , ambiguity , and inconsistency —all manifestations of pressures for uniformity.

Cognitive Dissonance Examples You May Experience Every Day

Because of this belief, participants in the dissonance condition were inclined to misattribute their psychological discomfort to the pill instead of the inconsistency, and thus they did not show any use of an inconsistency reduction strategy. If the CDS is a negative state, it is difficult to understand how individuals can misattribute it to a positive source. While some data provided support for this conceptualization (e.g., Martinie et al., 2013), most scholars still consider the dissonance state to be aversive per nature. Pleasure is one of the main factors in our modern culture of consumerism.

cognitive dissonance theory

The discomfort is triggered by the person’s belief clashing with new information perceived, wherein the individual tries to find a way to resolve the contradiction to reduce their discomfort. While most scholars agree on the notion that the CDS is aversive, this assumption has remained untested for a long time (Devine et al., 1999). Early studies on the valence of dissonance arousal mainly used the misattribution paradigm (Zanna & Cooper, 1974). In this paradigm, a plausible explanation is offered to participants to justify their discomfort. For instance, in their seminal paper, Zanna and Cooper’s participants had to ingest a placebo pill that allegedly induced a negative mood.

What Causes Cognitive Dissonance?

People enjoy living in stability and when they are exposed to contradicting cognitions of their own preexisting beliefs or actions, they become distressed. This level of discomfort is known as cognitive dissonance, and individuals https://ecosoberhouse.com/ react to this in several different ways in an attempt to return to consistency. In public relations, the responsibility of the professional is to get a target audience to change their established attitudes or behaviors.

cognitive dissonance theory

Importantly, the hostile attitudes may persist even after the violence itself declines . The application provides a social psychological basis for the constructivist viewpoint that ethnic and racial divisions can be socially or individually constructed, possibly from acts of violence . Their framework speaks to this possibility by showing how violent actions by individuals can affect individual attitudes, either ethnic or racial animosity . Afterwards, the students are trained to objectively perceive new facts and information to resolve the psychological stress of the conflict between reality and the student’s value system. Moreover, educational software that applies the derived principles facilitates the students’ ability to successfully handle the questions posed in a complex subject. Meta-analysis of studies indicates that psychological interventions that provoke cognitive dissonance in order to achieve a directed conceptual change do increase students’ learning in reading skills and about science. In fact, recent research has suggested that while a discrepancy between cognitions drives individuals to crave attitude-consistent information, the experience of negative emotions drives individuals to avoid counter attitudinal information.


When running any type of campaign, a public relations person is trying to cause a change in behavior, but before they can even do that they must know whom they are selling to. If a public relations person is good at their job, then they should be able to get their audience to choose their product over another one and will use cognitive dissonance to do this.

Who created the concept of cognitive dissonance?

Psychologist Leon Festinger published the book A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance in 1957. Among the examples he used to illustrate the theory were doomsday cult members and their explanations for why the world had not ended as they had anticipated. Many experiments have since been conducted to illustrate cognitive dissonance in more ordinary contexts.

He found that cognitive dissonance happens when there is an inconsistency in a person’s beliefs and actions, and they recognize that inconsistency. To try to resolve their cognitive dissonance, a person can change their beliefs, change their actions, or change their perception cognitive dissonance theory of their actions. Festinger’s original theory did not seek to explain how dissonance works. It proposes that inconsistencies in a person’s cognition cause mental stress, because psychological inconsistency interferes with the person’s functioning in the real world.

Female participants were informed they would be helping out in a study funded by several manufacturers. Participants were also told that they would receive one of the products at the end of the experiment to compensate for their time and effort. Life is filled with decisions, and decisions arouse dissonance.For example, suppose you had to decide whether to accept a job in an absolutely beautiful area of the country, or turn down the job so you could be near your friends and family. If you took the job you would miss your loved ones; if you turned the job down, you would pine for the beautiful streams, mountains, and valleys. When the participants were asked to evaluate the experiment, the participants who were paid only $1 rated the tedious task as more fun and enjoyable than the participants who were paid $20 to lie.

Cognitive Dissonance in Russia – Inkstick – Inkstick

Cognitive Dissonance in Russia – Inkstick.

Posted: Mon, 27 Jun 2022 07:00:00 GMT [source]


邮箱地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注